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Dr. Kristina M. L. Acri née Lybecker is a Senior Scholar at C-IP2 and is the John L. Knight Chair of Economics and Professor of Economics at Colorado College. She received her B.A. from Macalester College, double majoring in Economics and Latin American Studies. She received her Ph.D.in Economics from the University of California, Berkeley. Kristina’s research analyzes the difficulties of strengthening intellectual property rights protection in developing countries, specifically in the context of the pharmaceutical and environmental technology industries. Recent projects also address the challenges of counterfeit pharmaceuticals during the COVID-19 pandemic, alternatives to the existing patent system, the balance between pharmaceutical patent protection and access to essential medicines, the markets for jointly produced goods such as blood and blood products, and the role of international trade agreements in incentivizing innovation. Kristina has testified in more than a dozen states on the economics of parallel trade in medicines and the risks of biopharmaceutical counterfeiting. In 2016 she was awarded the Thomas Edison Innovation Fellowship by the Center for the Protection of Intellectual Property (CPIP) at the Antonin Scalia Law School, George Mason University. She has also worked with the US Food and Drug Administration, Reconnaissance International, PhRMA, IFPMA, the National Peace Foundation, the OECD, the Partnership for Safe Medicines, the Fraser Institute, and the World Bank, on issues of innovation, biopharmaceutical policymaking, international trade, and corruption.